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Resources for the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment based
Proactive and Personalised Primary Care of the Elderly

Physical Examination

  • Adunsky A, 2002

Adunsky, A., Fleissig, Y., Levenkrohn, S., Arad, M., Noy, S. (2002): A comparative study of Mini-Mental Test, Clock Drawing task and Cognitive-FIM in evaluating functional outcome of elderly hip fracture patients. Clin. Rehabil. 16, 414-419.



  • Ahn HJ, 2011

Ahn HJ, Seo SW, Chin J, Suh MK, Lee BH, Kim ST, et al. The cortical neuroanatomy of neuropsychological deficits in mild cognitive impairment and alzheimer’s disease: A surface-based morphometric analysis. Neuropsychologia. 2011;49(14):3931–3945.



  • Boxer AL, 2003

Boxer AL, Rankin KP, Miller BL, Schuff N, Weiner M, Gorno-Tempini ML, Rosen HJ. Cinguloparietal atrophy distinguishes alzheimer disease from semantic dementia. Archives of Neurology. 2003;60(7):949–956.



  • Cacho J, 1996

Cacho J, García-García R, Arcaya J, Gay J, Guerrero-Peral AL, Gómez-Sánchez JC, et al. El test del reloj en ancianos sanos. Revista de Neurología. 1996;24:1525–1528.



  • Colombo M,2009

M. Colombo, R. Vaccaro, S.F. Vitali, M. Malnati, A. Guaita. Clock drawing interpretation scale (CDSI) and neuro-psychological functions in older adults with mild and moderate cognitive impairments.  Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009;49 Suppl 1:39-48.



  • Cucinotta D, 2004

Cucinotta, D., Reggiani, A., Galletti, L., Rasciti, L., De Notariis, S. (2004): Preventive-comprehensive assessment (PCA): a new screening method for subclinical cognitive problems. Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr. Suppl. 9, 97-102.



  • Esteban-Santillan C, 1998

Esteban-Santillan, C. et al. 1998. Clock drawing test in very mild Alzheimer's Disease. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 46:1266-1269.



  • Ferrucci L, 1996

Ferrucci, L., Cecchi, F., Guralnik, J.M., Giampaoli, S., Lo Noce, C., Salani, B.,

Bandinelli, S., Baroni, A. (1996): Does the Clock Drawing Test predict cognitive decline in older persons independent of the Mini-Mental State Examination? The FINE Study Group. Finland, Italy, The Netherlands Elderly. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 44, 1326-1331.



Fisher BW, 1995

Fisher, B.W., Flowerdew, G. (1995): A simple model for predicting postoperative delirium in older patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc.43,175-178.



  • Forster S, 2009

Forster S, Teipel S, Zach C, Rominger A, Cumming P, Fougere C, et al. Fdg-pet mapping the brain substrates of visuo-constructive processing in alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2009;44(7):462–469.



  • Freedman M, 1994

Freedman M, Leach L, Kaplan E, Shulman KI, Delis DC. Clock drawing: A neuropsychological analysis. New York: Oxford University Press; 1994.


  • Freund B, 2005

Freund, B., Gravenstein, S., Ferris, R., Burke, B.L., Shaheen, B. (2005): Drawing clocks and driving cars. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 20, 240-244.



  • Heinik J, 2000

Heinik, J., Lahav, D., Drummer, D., Vainer-Benaiah Z., Lin, R. (2000): Comparison of a clock drawing test in elderly schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease patients: a preliminary study. Int. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 15, 638-643                       



  • Heinik J, 2002

Heinik, J., Solomesh, I., Shein, V., Becker, D. (2002): Clock drawing test in mild and moderate dementia of the Alzheimer’s type: a comparative and correlation study. Int. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 17, 480-485



  • Kozora E, 1994

Kozora E, Munro CC. Qualitative features of clock drawing in normal aging and Alzheimer’s Disease. Assessment. 1994;1(2):179–187.



  • Lam LCW, 1998

Lam, LCW. et al. 1998. Clock-face drawing, reading and setting test in the screening of dementia in Chinese elderly adults. Journal of Gerontology. 53B:353-357.


  • Libon DJ, 1996

Libon DJ, Malamut BL, Swenson R, Prouty Sands L, Cloud BS. Further analyses of clock drawings among demented and nondemented older subjects. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology. 1996;11(3):193–205.



  • Mendez MF, 1992

Mendez MF, Ala T, Underwood KL. Development of scoring criteria for the Clock Drawing Task in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1992;40:1095–1099.



  • Moretti R, 2002

Moretti, R., Torre, P., Antonello, R.M., Cazzaro, G., Bava, A. (2002): Ten-point clock test: a correlation analysis with other neuropsychological tests in dementia. Int. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 17, 347-353.



  • Nagahama Y, 2005

Nagahama, Y., Okina, T., Suzuki, N., Nabatame, H., Matsuda, M. (2005): Neural correlates of impaired performance on Clock Drawing Test in Alzheimer’s disease. Dement. Geriatr. Cogn. Disord. 19, 390-396.



  • Osterrieth P, 1944

Osterrieth P. Le test de copie d’une figure complexe. Archives de Psychologie. 1944;30:206–356.

  • Podsiadlo D R S, 1991

Podsiadlo D, Richardson S. The timed "Up & Go": a test of basic functional mobility for frail elderly persons. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991 Feb;39(2):142-8.



  • Rouleau I, 1992

Rouleau I, Salmon DP, Butters N, Kennedy C, McGuire K. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of clock drawings in Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s Disease. Brain and Cognition. 1992;18:70–87.



  • Royall DR, 1996

Royall, DR. 1996. Comments of the executive control of clock-drawing. Journal of the American Geriatric Society. 44:218-219.



  • Royall DR, 1998

Royall, D.R., Cordes, J.A., Polk, M. (1998): Clox: an executive clock drawing task. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 64, 588-594.



  • Salmon E, 2009

Salmon E, Collette F, Olivier L, Van der Linden M, Laureys S, Delfiore G, Luxen A. Involvement of both prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex in dual-task performance. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2005;24:237–251.



  • Sheridan PL, 2003

Sheridan, P.L., Solomont, J., Kowall, N., Hausdorff, J.M. (2003): Influence of executive function on locomotor function: divided attention increases gait variability in Alzheimer’s disease. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 51, 1633-1637.



  • Shulman KI, 2000

Shulman, K.I. 2000. Clock-drawing: Is it the ideal cognitive screening test? International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 15:548-561.



  • Solomon PR, 1998

Solomon PR et al. 1998. A seven minute neurocognitive screening battery highly sensitive to Alzheimer's disease. Archives of Neurology. 55:349-355.



  • Spreen O, 1998

Spreen O, Strauss E. A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests: Administration, Norms, and Commentary. 2. New York: Oxford University Press; 1998.


  • Suhr J, 1998

Suhr J, Grace J, Allen J, Nadler J, McKenna M. Quantitative and qualitative performance of stroke versus normal elderly on six clock drawing systems. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology. 1998;13:495–502.



  • Teipel SJ, 2006

Teipel SJ, Willoch F, Ishii K, Burger K, Drzezga A, Engel R, et al. Resting state glucose utilization and the cerad cognitive battery in patients with alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiology of Aging. 2006;27(5):681–690.


Physical Examination

These are references for Physical Examination

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The Physical Examination is one of 5 sub-domains of the

Medical Assessment

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The Medical Assessment is one of 8 domains of the

Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA)

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