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Resources for the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment based
Proactive and Personalised Primary Care of the Elderly

Medication Review

  • AGS, 2012

The American Geriatrics Society 2012 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. (2012). American Geriatrics Society Updated Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60, 616–631.



  • Alkin PA, 1999

Atkin, PA, Veitch, PC, Veitch, EM, et al. The epidemiology of serious adverse drug reactions among the elderly. Drugs Aging 1999; 14(2): 141–152.



  • Beers MH, 1991

Beers, MH, Ouslander, JG, Rollingher, I, et al. Explicit criteria for determining inappropriate medication use in nursing home residents. Arch Intern Med 1991; 151(9): 1825–1832.


  • Boustani M, 2008

Boustani M, Campbell N, Munger S et al. Impact of anticholinergics on the aging brain: A review and practical appllication. Aging Health 2008;4:311–320.

  • Byrne S, 2008

Byrne, S, Ryan, CO, Mahony, D, et al. Inappropriate prescribing in the elderly: a review of primary care and nursing home prescriptions. Int J Pharm Pract 2008; 16(I): A36.


  • Carnahan RM, 2006

Carnahan RM, Lund BC, Perry PJ et al. The Anticholinergic Drug Scale as a measure of drug-related anticholinergic burden: Associations with serum anticholinergic activity. J Clin Pharmacol 2006;46:1481–1486.


  • Chu LW, 1999

Chu LW, Pei CK. Risk factors for early hospital readmission in elderly patients. Gerontology 1999; 45: 220-6 (


  • DugganC, 1998

Duggan C, Feldman R, Hough J, Bates I. Reducing adverse prescribing discrepancies following hospital discharge. Int J Pharm Pract 1998; 6: 77-82.


  • Fick DM, 2003

Fick, DM, Cooper, JW, Wade, WE, et al. Updating the Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults: results of a US consensus panel of experts. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163(22): 2716–2724.



  • Furniss L, 1998

Furniss L, Craig SK, Burns A. Medication use in nursing homes for elderly people. Int J Geriatric Psychiatry 1998; 13: 433-9


  • Furniss L, 2000

Furniss L, Burns A, Craig SK, Scobie S, Cooke J, Faragher B. Effects of a pharmacist’s medication review in nursing homes: Randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 2000; 176: 563-7


  • Gallagher P, 2008

Gallagher, P, O’Mahony, D. STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons’ potentially inappropriate Prescriptions): application to acutely ill elderly patients and comparison with Beers’ criteria. Age Ageing 2008; 37(6): 673–679.


  • Gallagher PF, 2011

Gallagher, P, O’Mahony, D. STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons’ potentially inappropriate Prescriptions): application to acutely ill elderly patients and comparison with Beers’ criteria. Age Ageing 2008; 37(6): 673–679.


  • Hanlon JT, 1992

Hanlon JT, Schmader KE, Samsa GP, Weinberger M, Uttech KM, Lewis IK, et al. A method for assessing drug therapy appropriateness. J Clin Epidemiol. 1992;45:1045–51


  • Hanlon JT, 1997

Hanlon, JT, Schmader, KE, Koronkowski, MJ, et al. Adverse drug events in high risk older outpatients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1997; 45(8): 945–948.


  • Hill-Taylor B, 2013

Hill-Taylor, B, Sketris, I, Hayden, J, et al. Application of the STOPP/START criteria: a systematic review of the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing in older adults, and evidence of clinical, humanistic and economic impact. J Clin Pharm Ther 2013; 38(5): 360–372.


  • Hill-Taylor B, 2016

Hill-Taylor, B, Walsh, KA, Stewart, S, et al. Effectiveness of the STOPP/START (Screening Tool of Older Persons’ potentially inappropriate Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to the Right Treatment) criteria: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. J Clin Pharm Ther 2016; 41(2): 158–169.


  • Hutchinson LC, 2007

Hutchison, LC, O’Brien, CE. Changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the elderly patient. J Pharm Pract 2007; 20(1): 4–12.



  • Lavan AH et al, , 2017

Amanda Hanora Lavan, Paul Gallagher, Carole Parsons, Denis O'Mahony, STOPPFrail (Screening Tool of Older Persons Prescriptions in Frail adults with limited life expectancy): consensus validation, Age and Ageing, Volume 46, Issue 4, July 2017, Pages 600–607,


  • Lazarou J, 1998

Lazarou, J, Pomeranz, BH, Corey, PN. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA 1998; 279(15): 1200–1205.


  • NICE 2015

NICE Medicines and Prescribing Centre . Medicines optimisation: the safe and effective use of medicines to enable the best possible outcomes. Manchester: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2015.


  • O'Connor MN, 2012

O’Connor MN, Gallagher P, O’Mahony D. Inappropriate pre­scribing: criteria, detection and prevention. Drugs Aging 2012; 29: 437–52.


  • O'Mahoney D, 2010

O’Mahony, D, Gallagher, P, Ryan, C, et al. STOPP & START criteria: a new approach to detecting potentially inappropriate prescribing in old age. Eur Geriatr Med 2010; 1(1): 45–51.


  • O'Mahoney D, 2015

Denis O'Mahoney, David O'Sullivan, Stephen Byrne, Marie Noelle O'Connor, Cristin Ryan, Paul Gallagher. STOPP/START criteria for potentiallyinappropriate prescribing in older people: version 2. Age and Ageing 2015; 44: 213–218


  • O'Mahoney D et al, 2023

O’Mahony, D., Cherubini, A., Guiteras, A.R. et al. STOPP/START criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people: version 3. Eur Geriatr Med 14, 625–632 (2023)


  • O'Mahoney D et al, 2023 correction

O’Mahony, D., Cherubini, A., Guiteras, A.R. et al. Correction: STOPP/START criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people: version 3. Eur Geriatr Med 14, 633 (2023).


  • Onder G, 2013

Onder G, van der Cammen TJ, Petrovic M, Somers A, Rajkumar C. Strategies to reduce the risk of iatrogenic illness in complex older adults. Age Ageing 2013; 42: 284–91.


  • Randles AJ, 1999

Randles AJ, Black PE. An investigation into the role of a practice pharmacist in the processing of discharge medication in one GP practice. Pharm J 1999; 263: R65

  • Resnick B, 2012

Resnick, B, & Fick, D.M. 2012 Beers Criteria update. How should practicing nurses use the Criteria? Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 38(6),



  • Rudolph JL, 2008

Rudolph JL, Salow MJ, Angelini MC et al. The Anticholinergic Risk Scale and anticholinergic adverse effects in older persons. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:508–513.



  • Scott I, 2010

Scott I, Jayathissa S. Quality of drug prescribing in older patients: is there a problem and can we improve it? Intern Med J 2010; 40: 7–18.


Physical Examination

These are references for Medication Review

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medical assessment blood pressure measurement medication pills

The Medication Review is one of 5 sub-domains of the

Medical Assessment

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The Medical Assessment is one of 8 domains of the

Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA)

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