top of page
Resources for the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment based
Proactive and Personalised Primary Care of the Elderly


  • Alzheimer Association. 2011

Alzheimer Association. 2011 Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Alzheimers Dementia; 2011. p. 7. [Google Scholar]


  • Boettger S, 2011

Boettger S, Passik S, Breitbart W. Treatment characteristics of delirium superimposed on dementia. Int Psychogeriatr. 2011;23:1671–1676. 


  • Fick D, 2002

Fick D, Agostini JV, Inouye SK. Delirium superimposed on dementia: A systematic review. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002;50:1723–1732.


  • Fick DM, 2007

Fick DM, Hodo DM, Lawrence F, et al. Recognizing delirium superimposed on dementia: Assessing nurses’ knowledge using case vignettes. J Gerontol Nurs. 2007;33:40–47. [


  • Fong TG, 2009

Fong TG, Jones RN, Shi P, et al. Delirium accelerates cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2009;72:1570–1575


  • Gaugler JE, 2007

Gaugler JE, Duval S, Anderson KA, et al. Predicting nursing home admission in the U.S.: a meta-analysis. BioMed Central. 2007:1–21.


  • Inouye SK, 1990

Inouye SK, Van Dyck CH, Alessi CA, Balkin S, Siegal AP, Horwitz RI.  Clarifying confusion: The Confusion Assessment Method.  A new method for detection of delirium.  Ann Intern Med. 1990; 113: 941‑8.



  • Inouye SK, 1996

Inouye SK, Charpentier PA. Precipitating factors for delirium in hospitalized elderly persons. JAMA. 1996;275:852–857.


  • Inouye SK, 1999

Inouye SK, Bogardus ST, Charpentier PA, et al. A multicomponent intervention to prevent delirium in hospitalized older patients. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:669–676


  • Inouye SK, 2006

Inouye SK. Delirium in Older Persons. New England Journal of Medicine 2006;354(11):1157-65.



  • Margiotta A, 2006

Margiotta A, Bianchetti A, Ranieri P, et al. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of delirium in demented and not demented elderly medical inpatients. J Nutr Health Aging. 2006;10:535–539.


  • McCusker J, 2001

McCusker J, Cole M, Dendukuri N, et al. Delirium in older medical inpatients and subsequent cognitive and functional status: A prospective study. Can Med Assoc J. 2001;165:575–583.


  • NICE, 2010

Delirium : diagnosis, prevention and management. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2010.



  • Pisani MA

Pisani MA, Murphy TE, Van Ness PH, et al. Characteristics associated with delirium in older patients in a medical intensive care unit. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:1629–1634.


  • RCP, 2006

The prevention, diagnosis and management of delirium in older people. Concise guidance to good practice series, No 6.  London: College Royal of Physicians, 2006.


  • Tiegers Z et al., 2021

Zoë Tieges, Alasdair M J Maclullich, Atul Anand, Claire Brookes, Marica Cassarino, Margaret O’connor, Damien Ryan, Thomas Saller, Rakesh C Arora, Yue Chang, Kathryn Agarwal, George Taffet, Terence Quinn, Susan D Shenkin, Rose Galvin, Diagnostic accuracy of the 4AT for delirium detection in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis, Age and Ageing, Volume 50, Issue 3, May 2021, Pages 733–743,


  • Wei LA, 2008

Wei LA, Fearing MA, Sternberg EJ, et al. The confusion assessment method: A systematic review of current usage. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008:1–8.



  • Wong CL,

Wong CL, Holroyd-Leduc J, Simel DL, et al. Does this patient have delirium? Value of bedside instruments. JAMA. 2010;304:779–786. 


Psychological Assessment

These are references for Delirium

Back To : Delirium

pensive elderly old man_edited_edited.png

Delirium is one of 4 sub-domains of the

Psychological Assessment

Back To : Psychological Assessment

doctor and patient

The Psychological Assessment is one of 8 domains of the

Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA)

Back To : Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment

bottom of page