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Resources for the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment based
Proactive and Personalised Primary Care of the Elderly


Camberwell Assessment of Need

Purpose : A family of questionnaires for the assessment of health and social difficulties 

Admin time :  5 - 30 min. variable

User Friendly :  High to moderate

Administered by : Primary Carer, GP, nurse or Social Worker interview with individual and, where appropriate, their carer or someone else they nominate.

May be self-administered, or completed by carer.


Content :


Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule

One-page version that can be used in routine clinical work or as an outcome measure in research studies. It assesses the need rating for each of the 22 CAN domains. The perspective of staff, service users and informal carers are recorded separately. Information is recorded on CANSAS by staff


Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule – Patient

two-page version intended for self-completion by service users. It assesses the service user’s perceptions about their needs in each of the 22 CAN domains


Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly


Short version of the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly


Camberwell Assessment of Need – Clinical

22-page detailed assessment designed for clinical use, which measures the need rating, help received from formal and informal sources, and records an action plan for each domain.


Camberwell Assessment of Need for Adults with Developmental and Intellectual Disabilities


Author : 

CAN 1st edition : Slade M, (1995), Book form (1999)

CAN 2nd edition : Slade M, (2020) :

​CANSAS : Hoe J, (2021)

CANE : Hoe J, (1999)

CANDID : Xenitidis K, (2021)


Copyright :

CAN is distributed using an Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 International Public Licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), which means that it can be used without permission for clinical, educational or research purposes, providing no change is made to the content and no charge is made. You do not need to contact the authors for this permission.

If you wish to change the measure then you need permission.

If you wish to charge for its use, either directly on a pay-per-use basis or indirectly by including it within a commercial product such as software or a book, then you will first need to apply commercial use license granting an Attribution-No Derivative Works 4.0 International Public Licence (CC BY-ND 4.0)

Translation :

Translated into 30+ languages

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Canberwell Assessment of Need family of questionnaires



  • It is standardised – the reliability and validity have been tested, so it produces meaningful data

  • It is comprehensive – it assesses a full range of health and social needs

  • It is multi-perspective – it separately assesses the perspective of staff, service users and family members

  • It is widely available – it has been translated into 30 languages

  • It is clinically useful – identifying areas of agreement and disagreement supports negotiation of a service user’s care plan

  • It measures an important outcome – the service user’s perspective on their unmet needs (‘patient-rated unmet need’) has emerged as an important variable, and reducing their unmet need causes improvements in therapeutic alliance and quality of life

  • guidelines are available for administration and interpretation


  • ​Clinical versions are relatively lengthy for average GP consultation: 

Accuracy :

Although the lack of objective external criteria makes it difficult to establish concurrent validity, The CAN appears to have face validity.

Clinicians and researchers in Britain and other European countries have consistently commented that it covers the range of difficulties faced by people

There is evidence that the CAN is a reliable instrument for assessing the needs of people (Phelan M, 1995)

This Tool is used in the Social Assessment

Back To : Social Assessment

old and young woman playing boardgame

The Social Assessment is one of 8 domains of the

 Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA)

Back To : Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment

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