Resources for the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment based
Proactive and Personalised Primary Care of the Elderly
Depression in older people has a prevalence of 5-10% over those aged over 65, but is frequently under-recognised.
It is associated with higher morbidity and poorer outcomes from physical illness.
Older people under-report symptoms of depression, and may attribute them to the effects of ageing.
Somatic symptoms are more common than in younger people with depression.
Geriatric Depression Scale - 4 questions
The 4 item Geriatric Depression Scale is suitable as a screening test for depressive symptoms in the elderly
Geriatric Depression Scale - 15 questions
This is ideal for evaluating the clinical severity of depression, and therefore for monitoring treatment.
Geriatric Depression Scale - 30 questions
This is the original full length GDS for evaluating the clinical severity of depression.
Not free to use and therefore not included in this toolkit
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
Self-rating scale that measures anxiety and depression in both hospital and community settings.
It focuses on subjective disturbances of mood rather than physical signs, and aims at distinguishing depression from anxiety.
DSM-IV Criteria for Depression
Depressed mood or a loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities for more than two weeks that represents a change from the person's baseline.
Specific symptoms, present nearly every day (*must be present)
1. Depressed mood or irritable most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by either subjective report (e.g., feels
sad or empty) or observation made by others (e.g., appears tearful).*
2. Decreased interest or pleasure in most activities, most of each day*
3. Significant weight change (5%) or change in appetite
4. Change in sleep: Insomnia or hypersomnia
5. Change in activity: Psychomotor agitation or retardation
6. Fatigue or loss of energy
7. Guilt/worthlessness: Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt
8. Concentration: diminished ability to think or concentrate, or more indecisiveness
9. Suicidality: Thoughts of death or suicide, or has suicide plan
Subthreshold depressive symptoms: Fewer than 5 symptoms of depression.
Mild depression: Few, if any, symptoms in excess of the 5 required to make the diagnosis, and symptoms result in only minor functional impairment.
Moderate depression: Symptoms or functional impairment are between 'mild' and 'severe'.
Severe depression: Most symptoms, and the symptoms markedly interfere with functioning. Can occur with or without psychotic symptoms.
Note that a comprehensive assessment of depression should not rely simply on a symptom count, but should take into account the degree of functional impairment and/or disability.
The use of a validated measure is recommended to evaluate the impact of treatment.
The 4 questions in the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-4) provide a quick and reliable screen for depression.
Are you basically satisfied with your life?
Do you feel that your life is empty?
Are you afraid that something bad is going to happen to you?
Do you feel happy most of the time?
One point is allocated for a negative answer to question 1 and 4, and for a positive answer to question 2 and 3.
Where 2 to 4 fpoints are scored, depression is highly likely and should be investigated further.
Depression is one of 4 sub-domains of the
Back To : Psychological Assessment
The Psychological Assessment is one of 8 domains of the
Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA)
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