top of page
Resources for the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment based
Proactive and Personalised Primary Care of the Elderly

Cognitive Decline

  • Adunsky A, 2002

Adunsky, A., Fleissig, Y., Levenkrohn, S., Arad, M., Noy, S. (2002): A comparative study of Mini-Mental Test, Clock Drawing task and Cognitive-FIM in evaluating functional outcome of elderly hip fracture patients. Clin. Rehabil. 16, 414-419.



  • Ahn HJ, 2011

Ahn HJ, Seo SW, Chin J, Suh MK, Lee BH, Kim ST, et al. The cortical neuroanatomy of neuropsychological deficits in mild cognitive impairment and alzheimer’s disease: A surface-based morphometric analysis. Neuropsychologia. 2011;49(14):3931–3945.



  • Anderson H.S., 2014

Anderson HS. Mild Cognitive Impairment : Medscape, April 2014.



  • Borson, S., 2003

Borson, S., Scanlan, J.M., Chen, P., & Ganguli, M. (2003). The Mini-Cog as a screen for dementia: Validation in a population-based sample. JAGS, 51(10), 1451-1454.



  • Borson, S., 2005

Borson, S., Scanlan, J.M., Watanabe, J., Tu, S.P., & Lessig, M. (2005). Simplifying detection of cognitive impairment: Comparison of the Mini-Cog and Mini-Mental State Examination in a multiethnic sample.  JAGS, 53(5), 871-874.



  • Borson, S., 2007

Borson, S., Scanlan, J., Hummel, J., Gibbs, K., Lessig, M., & Zuhr, E. (2007). Implementing routine cognitive screening of older adults in primary care: Process and impact on physician behavior. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(6), 811-817. 


  • Boxe r AL, 2003

Boxer AL, Rankin KP, Miller BL, Schuff N, Weiner M, Gorno-Tempini ML, Rosen HJ. Cinguloparietal atrophy distinguishes alzheimer disease from semantic dementia. Archives of Neurology. 2003;60(7):949–956.



  • Boyle PA, 2006

Boyle PA, Wilson RS, Aggarwal NT, et al. Mild cognitive impairment: risk of Alzheimer disease and rate of cognitive decline. Neurology. 2006 Aug 8. 67(3):441-5.


  • Brodaty H, 2002

Brodaty H, Pond D, Kemp NM, et al; The GPCOG: a new screening test for dementia designed for general practice. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002 Mar;50(3):530-4.



  • Brodaty H, 2004

Brodaty H, Kemp NM, Low L; Characteristics of the GPCOG, a screening tool for cognitive impairment, Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2004; 19:870-74


  • Brodaty H, 2006

Brodaty H et al 2006: What is the best dementia screening instrument? Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 14:5, May 2006



  • Brown DF, 1999


Brown DF. Lewy body dementia. Ann Med 1999;31:188-96


  • Cacho J, 1996

Cacho J, García-García R, Arcaya J, Gay J, Guerrero-Peral AL, Gómez-Sánchez JC, et al. El test del reloj en ancianos sanos. Revista de Neurología. 1996;24:1525–1528.

  • Clark D, 2003

Clark DM, Ehlers A, McManus F, et al. Cognitive therapy versus fluoxetine in generalized social phobia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2003;71:1058–67.



  • Crum RM, 1993

Crum RM, Anthony JC, Bassett SS, Folstein MF. Population-based norms for the Mini-Mental State Examination by age and educational level. JAMA 1993;269(18):2386-91.



  • Colombo M,2009

M. Colombo, R. Vaccaro, S.F. Vitali, M. Malnati, A. Guaita. Clock drawing interpretation scale (CDSI) and neuro-psychological functions in older adults with mild and moderate cognitive impairments.  Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009;49 Suppl 1:39-48.



  • Cucinotta D, 2004

Cucinotta, D., Reggiani, A., Galletti, L., Rasciti, L., De Notariis, S. (2004): Preventive-comprehensive assessment (PCA): a new screening method for subclinical cognitive problems. Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr. Suppl. 9, 97-102.



  • Dalrymple-Alford JC, 2010

J.C. Dalrymple-Alford et al. The MoCA: Well-suited screen for cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease. Neurology 2010;75;1717



  • Doody RS, 2001

Doody RS, Gelmacher DS, Gordon B, et al. Open-label, multicentre, phase 3 extension study of the safety and efficacy of donezepil in patients with Alzheimers disease. Arch. Neurol. 2001;58:427-33.



  • Esteban-Santillan C, 1998

Esteban-Santillan, C. et al. 1998. Clock drawing test in very mild Alzheimer's Disease. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 46:1266-1269.



  • Ferrucci L, 1996

Ferrucci, L., Cecchi, F., Guralnik, J.M., Giampaoli, S., Lo Noce, C., Salani, B.,

Bandinelli, S., Baroni, A. (1996): Does the Clock Drawing Test predict cognitive decline in older persons independent of the Mini-Mental State Examination? The FINE Study Group. Finland, Italy, The Netherlands Elderly. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 44, 1326-1331.



Fisher BW, 1995

Fisher, B.W., Flowerdew, G. (1995): A simple model for predicting postoperative delirium in older patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc.43,175-178.



  • Fischer P, 1996

Fischer P. The spectrum of depressive pseudo-dementia. J Neural Transm 1996;47:193-203.



  • Forster S, 2009

Forster S, Teipel S, Zach C, Rominger A, Cumming P, Fougere C, et al. Fdg-pet mapping the brain substrates of visuo-constructive processing in alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2009;44(7):462–469.



  • Freedman M, 1994

Freedman M, Leach L, Kaplan E, Shulman KI, Delis DC. Clock drawing: A neuropsychological analysis. New York: Oxford University Press; 1994.


  • Freund B, 2005

Freund, B., Gravenstein, S., Ferris, R., Burke, B.L., Shaheen, B. (2005): Drawing clocks and driving cars. J. Gen. Intern. Med. 20, 240-244.



  • Galante E, 2007

Galante E, Venturini G, Fiaccadori C. Computer-based cognitive intervention for dementia: preliminary results of a randomized clinical trial. G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2007 Jul-Sep. 29(3 Suppl B):B26-32.



  • Gauthier S, 1996

Gauthier S. Clinical diagnosis and management of Alzheimer’s disease. London, Engl: Martin Denitz Ltd; 1996.


  • Geda YE, 2010

Geda YE, Roberts RO, Knopman DS, Christianson TJ, Pankratz VS, Ivnik RJ, et al. Physical exercise, aging, and mild cognitive impairment: a population-based study. Archives of Neurology. 2010 Jan. 67(1):80-6.



  • Hannon B, 2009

Hannon B, Daneman M. Age-related changes in reading comprehension: an individual-differences perspective. Experimental Aging Research. 2009. 35(4):432-56.



  • Head D, 2008

Head D, Rodrigue KM, Kennedy KM, et al. Neuroanatomical and cognitive mediators of age-related differences in episodic memory. Neuropsychology. 2008 Jul. 22(4):491-507



  • Heinik J, 2000

Heinik, J., Lahav, D., Drummer, D., Vainer-Benaiah Z., Lin, R. (2000): Comparison of a clock drawing test in elderly schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease patients: a preliminary study. Int. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 15, 638-643                       



  • Heinik J, 2002

Heinik, J., Solomesh, I., Shein, V., Becker, D. (2002): Clock drawing test in mild and moderate dementia of the Alzheimer’s type: a comparative and correlation study. Int. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 17, 480-485



  • Hogan DB, 1993

Hogan DB. Managing a disability gap. Can Nurs Home 1993;4(2):17-20


  • Iverson GL, 1998

Iverson, G.L. 1998. Interpretation of Mini-Mental State Examination scores in community-dwelling elderly and geriatric neuropsychiatry patients. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13: 661-666.



  • Jeffrey S, 2013

Jeffrey S. AF linked to earlier, more rapid cognitive decline. Medscape Medical News. June 7, 2013.



  • Jenkins L, 2000

Jenkins L, Myerson J, Joerding JA, et al. Converging evidence that visuospatial cognition is more age-sensitive than verbal cognition. Psychol Aging. 2000 Mar. 15(1):157-75.



  • Karla S, 1996

Karla S, Bergeron C, Lang AE. Lewy body and dementia. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:487-93.


  • Kaye JA, 1998

Kaye JA. Diagnostic challenges in dementia. Neurology 1998;51(1):45-52.



  • Kozora E, 1994

Kozora E, Munro CC. Qualitative features of clock drawing in normal aging and Alzheimer’s Disease. Assessment. 1994;1(2):179–187.



  • Lam LCW, 1998

Lam, LCW. et al. 1998. Clock-face drawing, reading and setting test in the screening of dementia in Chinese elderly adults. Journal of Gerontology. 53B:353-357.


  • Lawton MP, 1969

Lawton MP, Brody EM. Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist 1969;9(3):179-86.



  • Libon DJ, 1996

Libon DJ, Malamut BL, Swenson R, Prouty Sands L, Cloud BS. Further analyses of clock drawings among demented and nondemented older subjects. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology. 1996;11(3):193–205.



  • Lorish TR, 1994

Lorish TR, Sandin KJ, Roth EJ, Noll SF. Stroke rehabilitation. 3. Rehabilitation, evaluation and management. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1994;75:47-51.



  • Luo L, 2008

Luo L, Craik FI. Aging and memory: a cognitive approach. Can J Psychiatry. 2008 Jun. 53(6):346-53


  • Mahoney F, 1965

Mahoney F. Barthel D (1965). "Functional evaluation: the Barthel Index". Md Med J 14: 61–65.



  • Mariangela R, 2011

Mariangela R, Annalisa O, Milena F, Marco M, Neldo A, Roberta C, et al. Effects of a diet integration with an oily emulsion of DHA-phospholipids containing melatonin and tryptophan in elderly patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment. Nutr Neurosci. 2011 Dec 20



  • McKeith IG, 1996

McKeith IG, Galasko D, Kosaka K, Perry EK, Dickson DW, Hansen LA, et al. Consensus guidelines for the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): report of the Consortium on DLB International Workshop. Neurology 1996;47:1113-24.



  • Mendez MF, 1992

Mendez MF, Ala T, Underwood KL. Development of scoring criteria for the Clock Drawing Task in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1992;40:1095–1099.



  • Molloy DW, 1991

Molloy DW, McIlroy WE, Guyatt GH, Lever JA. Validity and reliability of the Dysfunctional Behaviour Rating Instrument. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1991;84:103-6



  • Molloy W, 1998

Molloy W, Caldwell P. Alzheimer’s disease. Toronto, Ont: Key Porter Books; 1998.


  • Moretti R, 2002

Moretti, R., Torre, P., Antonello, R.M., Cazzaro, G., Bava, A. (2002): Ten-point clock test: a correlation analysis with other neuropsychological tests in dementia. Int. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 17, 347-353.



  • Nagahama Y, 2005

Nagahama, Y., Okina, T., Suzuki, N., Nabatame, H., Matsuda, M. (2005): Neural correlates of impaired performance on Clock Drawing Test in Alzheimer’s disease. Dement. Geriatr. Cogn. Disord. 19, 390-396.



  • Nasreddine ZS, 2005

Nasreddine ZS, Phillips NA, Bédirian V, Charbonneau S, Whitehead V, Collin I, Cummings JL, Chertkow H. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA): A Brief Screening Tool For Mild Cognitive Impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 53:695-699, 2005


  • Olson RA, 2008

Olson RA et al. Feasibility study of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in patients with brain metastases. 0941-4355 (Print) 1433-7339 (Online) Supportive Care in Cancer. Wednesday, March 12, 2008, 16:1273-1278.



  • Olson RA, 2011

Olson RA et al. Prospective comparison of two cognitive screening tests: Diagnostic accuracy and correlation with community integration and quality of life. Journal of Neuro-Oncology, accepted April 17, 2011



  • Orange JB, 1994

Orange JB, Molloy DW, Lever JA, Darzins P, Ganesan C. Alzheimer’s disease: physician-patient communication. Can Fam Physician 1994;40:1160-8.



  • Osterrieth P, 1944

Osterrieth P. Le test de copie d’une figure complexe. Archives de Psychologie. 1944;30:206–356.


  • Panza F, 2010

Panza F, Frisardi V, Capurso C, D'Introno A, Colacicco AM, Chiloiro R, et al. Effect of donepezil on the continuum of depressive symptoms, mild cognitive impairment, and progression to dementia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2010 Feb. 58(2):389-90


  • Parks CM, 2010

Parks CM, Decarli C, Jacoby LL, Yonelinas AP. Aging effects on recollection and familiarity: the role of white matter hyperintensities. Neuropsychology, development, and cognition. Section B, Aging, neuropsychology and cognition. Feb 2010. 19:1-17


  • Preda A, 2011

Preda A, Adami A, Kemp AS, & Nguyen, D (2011). MoCA: A screening instrument for the assessment of cognition in schizophrenia. In Abstracts from the 13th International Congress on Schizophrenia Research, Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37(S1):225-226.



  • Price TR, 1990

Price TR. Affective disorders after stroke. Stroke 1990;21(Suppl 2):12-3


  • Risacher SL, 2009

Risacher SL, Saykin AJ, West JD, Shen L, Firpi HA, McDonald BC; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Baseline MRI predictors of conversion from MCI to probable AD in the ADNI cohort. Current Alzheimer Research. 2009 Aug. 6(4):347-61



  • Roberts RO, 2008

Roberts RO, Geda YE, Knopman DS, et al. The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging: design and sampling, participation, baseline measures and sample characteristics. Neuroepidemiology. 2008. 30(1):58-69.



  • Roberts RO, 2010

Roberts RO, Geda YE, Cerhan JR, Knopman DS, Cha RH, Christianson TJ, et al. Vegetables, Unsaturated Fats, Moderate Alcohol Intake, and Mild Cognitive Impairment. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. 2010 May 22. 29(5):413-423.



  • Rouleau I, 1992

Rouleau I, Salmon DP, Butters N, Kennedy C, McGuire K. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of clock drawings in Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s Disease. Brain and Cognition. 1992;18:70–87.



  • Royall DR, 1996

Royall, DR. 1996. Comments of the executive control of clock-drawing. Journal of the American Geriatric Society. 44:218-219.



  • Royall DR, 1998

Royall, D.R., Cordes, J.A., Polk, M. (1998): Clox: an executive clock drawing task. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 64, 588-594.



  • Sachs GA, 2011

Sachs GA, Carter R, Holtz LR, Smith F, Stump TE, Tu W, et al. Cognitive impairment: an independent predictor of excess mortality: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2011 Sep 6. 155(5):300-8.



  • Salmon E, 2009

Salmon E, Collette F, Olivier L, Van der Linden M, Laureys S, Delfiore G, Luxen A. Involvement of both prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex in dual-task performance. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2005;24:237–251.



  • Sheridan PL, 2003

Sheridan, P.L., Solomont, J., Kowall, N., Hausdorff, J.M. (2003): Influence of executive function on locomotor function: divided attention increases gait variability in Alzheimer’s disease. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 51, 1633-1637.



  • Shulman KI, 2000

Shulman, K.I. 2000. Clock-drawing: Is it the ideal cognitive screening test? International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 15:548-561.



  • Simon SS, 2012

Simon SS, Yokomizo JE, Bottino CM. Cognitive intervention in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A systematic review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2012 Feb 1. 36(4):1163-1178



  • Sandin KJ, 1994

Sandin KJ, Cifu DX, Noll SF. Stroke rehabilitation. 4. Psychologic and social implications. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1994;75:52-5.



  • Solomon PR, 1998

Solomon PR et al. 1998. A seven minute neurocognitive screening battery highly sensitive to Alzheimer's disease. Archives of Neurology. 55:349-355.



  • Spreen O, 1998

Spreen O, Strauss E. A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests: Administration, Norms, and Commentary. 2. New York: Oxford University Press; 1998.


  • Steiner D, 1991

Steiner D, Marcopulos B. Depression in the elderly. Nurs Clin North Am 1991;26(3):585-600.



  • Suhr J, 1998

Suhr J, Grace J, Allen J, Nadler J, McKenna M. Quantitative and qualitative performance of stroke versus normal elderly on six clock drawing systems. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology. 1998;13:495–502.



  • Teipel SJ, 2006

Teipel SJ, Willoch F, Ishii K, Burger K, Drzezga A, Engel R, et al. Resting state glucose utilization and the cerad cognitive battery in patients with alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiology of Aging. 2006;27(5):681–690.



  • Thacker EL, 2013

Thacker EL, McKnight B, Psaty BM, Longstreth WT Jr, Sitlani CM, Dublin S, et al. Atrial fibrillation and cognitive decline: A longitudinal cohort study. Neurology. 2013 Jun 5



  • Vertesi A, 2001

Andrea Vertesi Judith A. Lever, D. William Molloy, Brett Sanderson Irene Tuttle, Laura Pokoradi,  Elaine Principi.  Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination Use and interpretation. Canadian Family Physician Vol 47: October 2001.



  • Videnovic A, 2010

Videnovic A. et al. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment as a screening tool for cognitive dysfunction in Huntington’s disease. Movement Disorders, 2010: 25(3):401-4.


  • Wilson RS, 2009

Wilson RS, Aggarwal NT, Barnes LL, Bienias JL, Mendes de Leon CF, Evans DA. Biracial population study of mortality in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease. Archives of Neurology. 2009 Jun. 66(6):767-72.



  • Yesavage JA, 1983

Yesavage JA, Brink TL, Rose TL. Development and validation of a geriatric depres­sion scale: a preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res 1983;7:37-49.


Cognitive Decline

These are references for Cognitive Decline

Back To : Cognitive Decline

Cognitive Decline is one of 4 sub-domains of the

Psychological Assessment

Back To : Psychological Assessment

The Psychological Assessment is one of 8 domains of the

Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA)

Back To : Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment

bottom of page