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Resources for the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment based
Proactive and Personalised Primary Care of the Elderly


1. Alfonso J Cruz et al.

Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis

Age and Ageing, afy169. 12 October 2018.


2. Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM  et al.  

Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: report of the European working group on sarcopenia in older people

Age Ageing 2010; 39: 412–23.


3. 2018 ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code M62.84. 2018.


4. Vellas B, Fielding RA, Bens C et al.  

Implications of ICD-10 for sarcopenia clinical practice and clinical trials: report by the International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research Task Force

J Frailty Aging 2018; 7:2–9



5. Malmstrom TK, Miller DK, Simonsick EM et al.  

SARC-F: a symptom score to predict persons with sarcopenia at risk for poor functional outcomes

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2016;7:28–36.


6. Ishii S, Tanaka T, Shibasaki K et al.  

Development of a simple screening test for sarcopenia in older adults.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2014;14(Suppl 1):93–101.


7. Roberts HC, Denison HJ, Martin HJ et al.  .

A review of the measurement of grip strength in clinical and epidemiological studies: towards a standardised approach.

Age Ageing 2011;40:423–9.


8. Schweitzer L, Geisler C, Pourhassan M et al.  .

What is the best reference site for a single MRI slice to assess whole-body skeletal muscle and adipose tissue volumes in healthy adults?

Am J Clin Nutr 2015;102:58–65.

9. Mitsiopoulos N, Baumgartner RN, Heymsfield SB et al.  .

Cadaver validation of skeletal muscle measurement by magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 1998;85:115–22.


10. Shen W, Punyanitya M, Wang Z et al.  .

Total body skeletal muscle and adipose tissue volumes: estimation from a single abdominal cross-sectional image.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2004;97:2333–8.


11. Sergi G, De Rui M , Stubbs B et al.  .

Measurement of lean body mass using bioelectrical impedance analysis: a consideration of the pros and cons.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2017;29:591–97.


12. Maden-Wilkinson TM, Degens  H, Jones DA et al.  .

Comparison of MRI and DXA to measure muscle size and age-related atrophy in thigh muscles.

J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2013;13:320–8.


13. Heymsfield SB, Smith R, Aulet M et al.  .

Appendicular skeletal muscle mass: measurement by dual-photon absorptiometry.

Am J Clin Nutr 1990;52:214–8.


14.  Kim J, Wang Z, Heymsfield SB et al.  .

Total-body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by a new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method.

Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:378–83.


15. Yamada Y, Nishizawa M, Uchiyama T et al.  .

Developing and validating an age-independent equation using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis for estimation of appendicular skeletal muscle mass and establishing a cutoff for sarcopenia.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017;14.



16. Lee SJ, Janssen I, Heymsfield SB et al.  .

Relation between whole-body and regional measures of human skeletal muscle.

Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:1215–21.


17. van der Werf A, Langius JAE, de van der Schueren MAE et al.  .

Percentiles for skeletal muscle index, area and radiation attenuation based on computed tomography imaging in a healthy Caucasian population.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2018;72:288–96.


18. Derstine BA, Holcombe SA, Ross BE et al.  .

Skeletal muscle cutoff values for sarcopenia diagnosis using T10 to L5 measurements in a healthy US population.

Sci Rep 2018;8:11369.


19. Goodpaster BH, Kelley DE, Thaete FL et al.  

Skeletal muscle attenuation determined by computed tomography is associated with skeletal muscle lipid content.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2000;89:104–10.

20. Reinders I, Murphy RA, Brouwer IA et al.  .

Muscle quality and myosteatosis: novel associations with mortality risk: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik study.

Am J Epidemiol 2016;183:53–60.

21. Grimm A, Meyer H, Nickel MD et al.  .

Evaluation of 2-point, 3-point, and 6-point Dixon magnetic resonance imaging with flexible echo timing for muscle fat quantification.

Eur J Radiol 2018;103:57–64.


22. Distefano G, Standley RA, Zhang X et al.  .

Physical activity unveils the relationship between mitochondrial energetics, muscle quality, and physical function in older adults.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2018;9:279–94.


23. Ruan XY, Gallagher D, Harris T et al.  

Estimating whole body intermuscular adipose tissue from single cross-sectional magnetic resonance images.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2007;102:748–54.


24. Ishii S, Tanaka T, Shibasaki K et al.  

Development of a simple screening test for sarcopenia in older adults.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2014;14(Suppl 1):93–101.



25. American Academy of Orthotists and Prosthetists

26. NIH Toolbox

4 meter walk gait test

27. NIH Toolbox

Short Physical Battery Protocol

28. Mijnarends DM, Koster A, Schols JM et al.  .

Physical activity and incidence of sarcopenia: the population-based AGES-Reykjavik Study.

Age Ageing 2016;45:614–20.


29. Prado CM, Wells JC, Smith SR et al.  .

Sarcopenic obesity: a critical appraisal of the current evidence.

Clin Nutr 2012;31:583–601.

30. Johnson Stoklossa CA, Sharma AM, Forhan M et al.  .

Prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in adults with class II/III obesity using different diagnostic criteria.

J Nutr Metab 2017;2017:7307618.


31. Kalinkovich A, Livshits G.

Sarcopenic obesity or obese sarcopenia: A cross talk between age-associated adipose tissue and skeletal muscle inflammation as a main mechanism of the pathogenesis.

Ageing Res Rev 2017;35:200–21.


32. Barbat-Artigas S, Pion CH, Leduc-Gaudet JP et al.  .

Exploring the role of muscle mass, obesity, and age in the relationship between muscle quality and physical function.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2014;15:303.e13–20.

33. Tian S, Xu Y.

Association of sarcopenic obesity with the risk of all-cause mortality: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016;16:155–66.


34. Newman AB, Haggerty CL,Goodpaster B et al.  .

Strength and muscle quality in a well-functioning cohort of older adults: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2003;51:323–30



35. Muscaritoli M, Anker SD, Argiles J et al.  .

Consensus definition of sarcopenia, cachexia and pre-cachexia: joint document elaborated by Special Interest Groups (SIG) ‘cachexia-anorexia in chronic wasting diseases’ and ‘nutrition in geriatrics’.

Clin Nutr 2010;29:154–9.


36. Cederholm T, Barazzoni R, Austin P et al.  .

ESPEN guidelines on definitions and terminology of clinical nutrition.

Clin Nutr 2017;36:49–64.


  • Malmstrom TK, 2013

Malmstrom TK, Morley JE. SARC-F: a simple questionnaire to rapidly diagnose sarcopenia. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2013 Aug;14(8):531-2.


  • Rossi AP, 2021

Rossi AP, Caliari C, Urbani S, Fantin F, Brandimarte P, Martini A, Zoico E, Zoso G, Babbanini A, Zanotelli A, Zamboni M. Sarcopenia Risk Evaluation in a Sample of Hospitalized Elderly Men and Women: Combined Use of the Mini Sarcopenia Risk Assessment (MSRA) and the SARC-F. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):635


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