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Resources for the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment based
Proactive and Personalised Primary Care of the Elderly

Pain Assessment

  • Boonstra AM, 2016

Boonstra AM, Stewart RE, Köke AJ, et al. Cut-Off Points for Mild, Moderate, and Severe Pain on the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Variability and Influence of Sex and Catastrophizing. Front Psychol. 2016;7:1466.



  • Chanques G, 2014

Chanques G, Pohlman A, Kress JP, Molinari N, de Jong A, Jaber S, et al. Psychometric comparison of three behavioural scales for the assessment of pain in critically ill patients unable to self-report. Crit Care. 2014;18:R160.



  • Chanques G, 2010

Chanques G, Viel E, Constantin JM, Jung B, de Lattre S, Carr J, et al. The measurement of pain in Intensive Care Unit: Comparison of 5 self-report intensity scales. Pain. 2010;151:711–21.


  • Crellin DJ, 2018

Crellin DJ, Harrison D, Santamaria N, Huque H, Babl FE. The psychometric properties of the FLACC scale used to assess procedural pain. J Pain. 2018;19(8):862-872.


  • Fredheim OM, 2008

Fredheim OM, Kaasa S, Fayers P, Saltnes T, Jordhøy M, Borchgrevink P. Chronic non-malignant pain patients report as poor health-related quality of life as palliative cancer patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand (2008) 52:143-8.


  • Garra G, 2010

Garra G, Singer AJ, Taira BR, et al. Validation of the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale in pediatric emergency department patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2010;17(1):50-4.


  • Gélinas C, 2006

Gélinas C, Fillion L, Puntillo KA, Viens C, Fortier M. Validation of the critical-care pain observation tool in adult patients. Am J Crit Care. 2006;15:420–7.


  • Kabes AM, 2009

Kabes AM, Graves JK, Norris J. Further validation of the nonverbal pain scale in intensive care patients. Crit Care Nurse. 2009;29:59–66.


  •  Kwekkeboom KL, 2001

Kwekkeboom KL, Herr K. Assessment of pain in the critically ill. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2001;13:181–94.


  • Odhner M, 2003

Odhner M, Wegman D, Freeland N, Steinmetz A, Ingersoll GL. Assessing pain control in nonverbal critically ill adults. Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 2003;22:260–7.


  • Pasero C, 2002

Pasero C, McCaffery M. Pain in the critically ill: New information reveals that one of the simplest procedures-turning-can be the most painful one. Am J Nurs. 2002;102:59–60.


  • Payen JF, 2001

Payen JF, Bru O, Bosson JL, Lagrasta A, Novel E, Deschaux I, et al. Assessing pain in critically ill sedated patients by using a behavioral pain scale. Crit Care Med. 2001;29:2258–63


  • RCP, 2007

Lynne Turner-Stokes FRCP and Bernard Higgins FRCP. Royal College of Physicians, British Geriatrics Society and British Pain Society. The assessment of pain in older people: national guidelines. Concise guidance to good practice series, No 8. London: RCP, 2007.


  • Topolovec-Vranic J, 2013

Topolovec-Vranic J, Gelinas C, Li Y, Pollmann-Mudryj MA, Innis J, McFarlan A, et al. Validation and evaluation of two observational pain assessment tools in a trauma and neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit. Pain Res Manag. 2013;18:e107–14.


  • Wegman DA, 2005

Wegman DA. Tool for pain assessment. Crit Care Nurse. 2005;25:14–5. 


Pain Assessment

These are references for Pain Assessment

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medical assessment blood pressure measurement medication pills

The Pain Assessment is one of 5 sub-domains of the

Medical Assessment

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The Medical Assessment is one of 8 domains of the

Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA)

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